Dr. Maria Montessori was born on August 31, 1870, in the small-town of Chiaravalle, Italy. In the beginning of her early childhood years, Maria grew up in Rome, which had an abundance of libraries, museums, and fine schools. Her father was a financial manager for a state-run industry. Her mother was raised in a family that valued education. She was well-schooled and an avid reader which was unusual for Italian women of that time. The same thirst for knowledge took root in young Maria, and she immersed herself in many fields of study before creating the educational method that bears her name today. Montessori was a successful physician, educator, and innovator, and is acclaimed for her educational method that builds on the way children naturally learn. She opened the first Montessori school—the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House—in Rome on January 6, 1907. Subsequently, she traveled the world and wrote extensively about her approach to education, attracting many devotees. There are now more than 22,000 Montessori schools in at least 110 countries worldwide. Clark Montessori is the first Montessori high school in world.
The "Montessori in America" Movement
Cincinnati was one of the first cities to benefit from the ‘Montessori-in-America’ movement. Nancy Rambusch studied the Montessori method in London in the 1950’s then began the American Montessori Society (AMS) in 1960. She was the driving force behind the AMS teacher-training program at Xavier University in the seventies. Her actions began what would quickly become a popular education movement in the United States.
Montessori Elementary Schools
Around the time that Rambusch helped to found Xavier’s Montessori program, Cincinnati Public Schools established a magnet school program as part of the settlement of a desegregation lawsuit. One of the first magnet offerings was Montessori for grades K-6, partly because Cincinnati was home to two of the oldest private Montessori elementary schools in the country--The New School and Mercy Montessori. These schools planted the seeds of public awareness in Cincinnati regarding the value of a Montessori education. Over the next 15 years, the elementary Montessori program grew from one school to three; there are now five public elementary Montessori schools and two public secondary schools.
Montessori Secondary Program
In the early 1980s, parents began talking about a secondary program where students could continue their Montessori experience into junior high and high school. In 1992, the Board of Education gave the nod to begin the process of developing a Montessori secondary program based on the success of the preschool and elementary programs in the city. Bob Townsend, the head of Magnet schools at the time, gathered parents, teachers, and administrators from each of the three elementary schools to begin the work. After a year of wrangling with ideas, small group meetings, large group meetings, and reading assignments, the co-founders created a philosophy statement.The next step was to create a program proposal. Research and consultations consumed the time of the committee. They began formulating ideas for creating a vision for the school, considering foreign language (Latin vs. Spanish), an inner city farm model vs. something else that might fulfill Montessori’s vision, and how to create a enduring sense of stewardship among our students. The program proposal was finalized and presented to the Board of Education, and by January 1994, the planning team was given the OK to start the Montessori program the following school year. The new Montessori middle school would be located at Jacobs Center in Winton Place with two other magnet programs. (Ironically, the same building that would become the Clark temporary location 15 years later.)
The proposal turned out to be quite different, as most proposals are, from what the program became. The new Montessori middle school teachers, with Marta Donahoe as program coordinator, continually referred to the proposal and learned from their experiences each day, keeping in mind the importance of Montessori’s original vision for the adolescent. The original proposal prompted investigation, observations, interviews, readings of Montessori and the Carnegie report on Middle School Education which was released in 1989, and ultimately made the Montessori Middle School team think very deeply about the integrity of their work, the fullness of their responsibility to the Montessori community and the adolescents they would serve.
Teachers and support staff were hired and trained in a 520-hour training program with Houston Montessori Center in which all teachers received a Montessori 12-15 credential from the American Montessori Society (AMS). Teachers now earn their Secondary I-II credential from the Cincinnati Montessori Secondary Teacher Education Program (CMStep).
Development of curriculum, location of the building sites, organization of students, and principals
The Montessori secondary program began as a school-within-a-school at Jacobs Center on Winton Ridge Lane with about sixty 7th graders. For the first two years the teachers tried out new things day-by-day, week-by-week. They met daily and on weekends. If the methods worked, and were true to the philosophy and methodology of Montessori, they kept it. If it did not work, they went back to the planning stage and tried again. By the fourth year, the program had grown. It relocated in small school building of its own: the old Highland Elementary on the Ohio River and added its own principal, Tom Rothwell and 9th grade team as the high school was born. By the end of the fifth year, the Montessori program, now called Clark Montessori after Peter H. Clark, the pioneering African-American educator, had outgrown their first building and moved to the old Peoples Middle School in Hyde Park, which is our permanent home today.
In the Hyde Park building, the junior high was located in one of two wings of the building. The junior high grew to five communities, each having between 50 and 55 students with two teachers and a teaching assistant. High school students were housed in the other wing. They are grouped by grade for core academic subjects and like the junior high students, stay with the same team of teachers for two years (grades 9-10 and 11-12.) Intersessions in the spring are multi-aged, with students selecting the unique experience depending on their interests. From 2007-2012, Clark Montessori moved to a temporary location – back to the Jacobs Center building. Rupa Townsend was the principal during this time when a dedicated design team met to plan the new building’s design. The beautiful new building construction was completed ready to move into in the 2012-2013 school year. In 2013 John Spieser was named principal and served for two years. One of Clark's former 11-12 English teachers, Dean Blase, returned to Clark in 2015 to serve as it's fourth principal.
Famous People Educated at Montessori Schools
There are many ‘famous’ people that have attended a Montessori school in some stage of their life. While some may argue, that there are many successful people who were not exposed to Montessori education, it's interesting that many of those who attended Montessori school, praise it as one of the important success factors and benchmarks of their lives.
- Larry Page and Sergey Brin – founders of Google
- Jeff Bezos – founder of Amazon.com
- Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis – former first lady (John F. Kennedy)
- Sean ‘P.Diddy’ Combs – singer/rapper
- Prince William and Prince Harry
- T. Berry Brazelton – pediatrician and author
- Julia Child – author, chef, TV cooking shows
- Elizabeth Berridge – actress
- Kami Cotler – actress
- Melissa and Sarah Gilbert – actors
- Gabriel Garcia Marquez – Nobel Prize winner for Literature
- Katherine Graham – ex-owner of the Washington Post
- Anne Frank – author, diarist from World War II